Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Adults

Acute otitis media is a viral or bacterial infection of the middle ear. It is the most common infection by which antibiotics are prescribed in children residing in the United States.

Causes of otitis media

Otitis media is caused by a virus or bacteria that causes an accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum. This condition can result from a cold, allergy or a respiratory infection.

The accumulation of fluid in the middle ear during otitis media causes ear pain, swelling and redness, which is called acute otitis media, and also prevents the eardrum from vibrating adequately, which often results in (temporary) hearing problems.

The fluid that remains in the middle ear produces severe otitis media or middle ear infection. This condition can become chronic, produce acute infections repeatedly, and eventually cause hearing difficulties. Otitis media can also cause ruptured eardrums.

Diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media

For the diagnosis of acute otitis media, specific signs and symptoms should be considered, such as otalgia, acute otorrhea or otoscopy with unambiguous inflammation data. The eardrum hyperemic, opaque and bulging can be observed with poor motility.

The use of home instruments such as needles often push the wax deeper into the ear canal as well as increasing the possibility of trauma.


The overall incidence of complications of otitis media is low. Complications of the central nervous system occur in 1 adult per 100,000 per year.

Mild to moderate hearing loss occurs in half of patients with chronic suppurative otitis.


The usual treatment of acute otitis media is performed with antibiotics for ten or fourteen days.

Usually, with antibiotic treatment the symptomatology improves significantly in 48 hours. In addition, the specialist may also prescribe nasal and mucolytic decongestants if needed.

When episodes of acute otitis media are very frequent and it is suspected that there are sources of infection, such as chronic adenoiditis, chronic sinusitis or immunological immaturity, a treatment should be established that is as specific as possible.

In many cases, repeated episodes of otitis media occur along with symptoms of adenoiditis and adenoid hypertrophy, so the removal of hypertrophic adenoid tissue and the placement of transtympanic drainage tubes should be performed.

Adults can also get otitis media and the treatment is the same as for children.


Treating Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, a common brain disorder, does not yet have a cure, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several medications that can help treat the symptoms.

Bipolar Disorder Symptoms

Even without the presence of symptoms, people may still be suffering from bipolar disorder. Bipolar I and bipolar II disorder are the two different types of this ailment.

Bipolar I disorder, which is often referred to as manic-depressive illness, has symptoms that include mood swings, shifts I energy and activity levels, and an inability to complete everyday tasks. Patients often switch between periods of depression and periods of high energy known as manic episodes.

With bipolar II disorder, people tend to skip the severe manic episodes, but still experienced reduced mania known as hypomania. They may remain productive and not feel as though they have an issue until they hit low periods of depression. This is where diagnosis is a must.

Symptoms of depression include, but are not limited to:

  • Feelings of sadness or hopelessness
  • A lack of energy
  • The inability to experience enjoyment
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

Symptoms of mania include, but are not limited to:

  • An elevation of mood or irritability
  • Increased restlessness or activity
  • Faster speech or racing thoughts
  • The feeling of less need for sleep

Mitchell Mathis, M.D., director of the Division of Psychiatry Products at the FDA spoke about mania and how it can make people engage in risky, impulsive behavior that is out of character and potentially dangerous.

What Should You Do if You Think You Have Bipolar Disorder

If you believe that you have the symptoms of bipolar disorder, you need to seek help from a mental health professional as soon as possible.

It’s incredibly important that you don’t ignore these symptoms in yourself or a loved one. Talk to your doctor or a mental health professional to get a proper diagnosis.

Mathis explains how a doctor can complete a laundry list of exams before delivering a diagnosis, as doing so will eliminate other potential health issues. Your doctor will rule out everything else before recommending a mental health professional.

The Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

There are many FDA-approved treatment options available to people with bipolar disorder.

The medications used to treat bipolar disorder include:

  • Mood stabilizers – these medications are designed to prevent mania, hypomania, and depressive episodes by balancing certain brain chemicals
  • Antipsychotic drugs – these medications include “atypical antipsychotics,” which are relatively new

The main issue with medications is that they often come with side effects. If you are taking mood stabilizers, there is the chance that you may experience increased thirst, trembling or nausea. With antipsychotic meds, dizziness, sleepiness, and restlessness are common side effects.

If your doctor prescribes atypical antipsychotics, do not be surprised if he or she asks for regular monitoring of your weight, blood sugar, and cholesterol. Increases in all three can be side effects when on these medications.