It’s every parent’s nightmare: Your back is turned, and your child swallows something toxic. It happens with products that you may not think of as dangerous. Take over-the-counter (OTC) eye drops used to relieve redness or nasal decongestant sprays.
“In the hands of young children who are apt to swallow them, they can cause serious health consequences,” says pharmacist Yelena Maslov, Pharm.D., at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Between 1985 and 2012, FDA identified 96 cases in which children ranging from 1 month to 5 years accidentally swallowed products containing these ingredients. Cases were reported by both consumers and manufacturers to government databases monitored by FDA. According to some case reports, children were chewing or sucking on the bottles or were found with an empty bottle next to them.
There were no deaths reported, but more than half of the cases (53) reported hospitalization because of symptoms that included nausea, vomiting, lethargy (sleepiness), tachycardia (fast heart beat), and coma.
To help avoid a child’s accidental exposure to any medication, parents and other caregivers should:
- Store medicines in a safe location that is too high for young children to reach or see.
- Never leave medicines or vitamins out on a kitchen counter or at a sick child’s bedside.
- If a medicine bottle does have a safety cap, be sure to relock it each time you use it.
- Remind babysitters, houseguests, and visitors to keep purses, bags, or coats that have medicines in them away and out of sight when they are in your home.
- Avoid taking medicines in front of young children because they like to mimic adults.
It is a fact that breast sagging, also referred as ptosis, is a condition experienced by all women sooner or later in their life (except those having small breasts). For many of us, it occurs quite early, even without pregnancy. Besides, there are numerous teens experiencing drooping breasts.
Being massaged into the skin of breasts, active ingredients of sagging breast creams absorb through skin layers (epidermis), entering capillaries and further, the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the receptors in the breasts become stimulated by the active ingredient of the cream, generally phytoestrogens. The estrogen receptors trigger the lifting of the breasts through normal growth hormones.
When shopping for food, consumers can read food labels and choose foods that are lower in sodium.
The Nutrition Facts Label on food and beverage packages lists the “Percent Daily Value (%DV)” of sodium in one serving of a food, based on 2,400 mg per day. The %DV tells you whether a food contributes a little or a lot to your total daily diet. Foods providing 5%DV or less of sodium per serving are considered low in sodium and foods providing 20%DV or more of sodium per serving are considered high. But remember, all of the nutrition information on the label is based upon one serving of the food and many packaged foods have more than one serving.
It is recommended that consumers not exceed 100% of the daily value for sodium and those advised to limit intake to 1,500 mg per day should aim for about 65% of the daily value.
Consumers can also be aware of the sources of sodium in their diet. In a report issued in February 2012, CDC identified these 10 foods as the greatest sources of sodium:
- breads and rolls
- luncheon meat, such as deli ham or turkey
- poultry, fresh and processed—(Much of the raw chicken bought from a store has been injected with a sodium solution.)
- cheeseburgers and other sandwiches
- cheese, natural and processed
- pasta dishes
- meat dishes, such as meat loaf with gravy
- savory snack foods, such as potato chips, pretzels and popcorn
And how do you know how much sodium is in the food served at your favorite restaurant? Fasano notes that many chain restaurants are putting the nutritional content of their foods—including calories, fats, sodium and sugars—on their websites, or it’s available by asking for it.
FDA has also created a number of online resources to help consumers reduce their sodium intake. They include:
- A Sodium Reduction website provides links to resources on how to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.
- A Sodium Education website offers consumer advice on how to use the Nutrition Facts Label to reduce sodium intake.
- The Spot the Block campaign challenges tweens from 9 to 13 to use the Nutrition Facts Label (the “block”) to make healthy food choices.
Most Americans consume way too much sodium, with salt (sodium chloride) being the most common form. That can be a serious health hazard, because excess sodium consumption contributes to the development and escalation of high blood pressure, a leading cause of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.
Research shows that Americans consume on average about 3,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends a reduction of sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg daily.
And those age 51 and older, and people of any age who are African-American or have high blood pressure, diabetes or chronic kidney disease should further reduce sodium intake to 1,500 mg daily. This amount meets your essential need for sodium. These populations comprise about half the U.S. population.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported that children and adolescents consume about the same amount of sodium as adults and also risk developing high blood pressure. The researchers found that kids who consumed the most sodium faced double the risk of having high blood pressure, compared to those who took in less sodium. For overweight or obese children, the risk was more than triple.
“There has been a common misconception that sodium intake is just a concern for people with high blood pressure,” says Jessica Leighton, Ph.D., MPH, senior advisor for science in the Food and Drug Administration’s Office of Foods and Veterinary Medicine. “But it’s a health risk for all people, including children, as the CDC report shows.”
FDA is working on a number of fronts to help consumers manage their sodium intake.